In response to a call for white papers, we propose a new Kepler mission, called NEOKepler, that would survey near Earth's orbit to identify potentially hazardous objects (PHOs). In a simulated 12-month survey, we estimate that NEOKepler would detect ∼150 new NEOs with absolute magnitudes of less than 21.5, ∼50 of which would be new PHOs. This would increase the annual PHO discovery rate by at least 50%. Kepler would also be sensitive to objects inside Earth’s orbit, discovering more objects in its first year than are currently known to exist. As an alternative science goal, NEOKepler could employ a different observing strategy to discover suitable targets for NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission.