Special Seminars: 2014
DateTalk TitleSpeaker
March 27, 2014Zonal Flows and Vortices in Circumstellar Disks: The Formation of Planetesimals in Starving ModeHubert Klahr, MPIA, Heidelberg
October 7, 2014Understanding cosmic acceleration with DES and beyondMarcelle Soares-Santos, Fermilab
October 28, 2014Searching for Axion Radio Broadcasts from the GalaxyAaron Chou, Fermilab
November 18, 2014Turbulent heating in the cores of galaxy clusters and its role in AGN-feedbackIrina Zhuravleva, Stanford University
December 9, 2014New Frontiers of Magnetized Turbulence in the Multiphase Interstellar MediumBlakesley Burkhart, University of Wisconsin - Madison

Zonal Flows and Vortices in Circumstellar Disks: The Formation of Planetesimals in Starving Mode
March 27, 2014 | TAAC 41 | 3:00 PM | Host: Arieh Konigl
Hubert Klahr, MPIA, Heidelberg

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The formation of kilometer-sized planetary building blocks, called planetesimals, is still a hotly debated problem. A pure "hit and stick" model of dust grains faces several difficulties: from drift barrier, to bouncing and fragmentation barrier, to finally the 10km barrier. Thus, models have been invoked that lead swiftly to 100km-sized planetesimals from cm-sized objects via turbulent concentration and gravitational collapse. In this talk I will highlight the role of zonal flows in magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) active regions of circumstellar disks and of vortices in the MHD-dead zones. In the latter, radial and vertical stratification is the key to understanding the hydrodynamical stability of these disks. The fact that these features are able to concentrate the tiniest amount of small dust in an amount sufficient to trigger a streaming and gravitational instability enables us to work out a size distribution for initial planetesimals that resembles observational findings in the asteroid and Kuiper belts.

Understanding cosmic acceleration with DES and beyond
October 7, 2014 | LASR Conference Room | 12:00 PM | Host: Stephen M. Kent
Marcelle Soares-Santos, Fermilab

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a large imaging sky survey designed to enable us to understand the physics underlying the accelerated expansion of the recent Universe. This cosmic acceleration can be explained either by invoking a new energy component to the Universe, dark energy, or by introducing a new fundamental theory of gravity. In either case it is one of the greatest scientific challenges of our time. DES data is used to measure the cosmic expansion rate history and the growth of large-scale structure using complementary techniques such as: type Ia Supernovae, galaxy cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. In this talk, I present our recent results, describe an initiative to develop a new future technique — cosmic sirens — and discuss the prospects for improving our understanding of cosmic acceleration with DES data. I will also discuss, briefly, the long term evolution of this research program beyond DES, with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). LSST is a future imaging survey that will cover larger area and will achieve higher depth than DES. GMT is a next generation 30-meter class telescope with superb imaging and spectroscopic capabilities.

Searching for Axion Radio Broadcasts from the Galaxy
October 28, 2014 | LASR Conference Room | 12:00 PM | Host: Richard G. Kron
Aaron Chou, Fermilab

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Originally proposed to solve the mystery of the vanishing neutron electric dipole moment, axions have emerged as one of the leading candidates to explain the dark matter of the universe. In this seminar, I will explain the principles of the resonant microwave cavity technique used by the ADMX experiment to directly detect the local flux of dark matter axions, and the challenges that will be faced as the search for the dark matter broadcast frequency progresses from the 1 GHz band up to 10 GHz and beyond. I will also briefly cover ideas to utilize instrumentation from the CMB/FIR communities to enable future probes: superconducting bolometers for higher frequencies 10-300 GHz, and frequency multiplexed readouts for lower frequencies <1 GHz.

Turbulent heating in the cores of galaxy clusters and its role in AGN-feedback
November 18, 2014 | LASR | 12:00 PM | Host: Andrey V. Kravtsov
Irina Zhuravleva, Stanford University

Radiative energy losses of the hot gas in galaxy clusters occur on timescales significantly shorter than the Hubble time, leading to massive accumulation of cold gas and vigorous star formation, in contradiction to observations. Several sources of heat have been discussed, most promising being heating by the SMBH in central galaxies through inflation of bubbles of relativistic plasma. The missing link in this scenario is the mechanisms, by which energy from bubbles is transported to the hot gas. Dissipation of gas turbulence, induced by bubbles during their buoyant rise and expansion, is a possible mechanisms. However, direct measurements of gas velocities will be possible only with future X-ray calorimeters on board the Astro-H observatory. We recently overcame this problem, by analyzing long Chandra observations of the X-ray brightest clusters of galaxies and measuring statistical properties of density fluctuations, which allowed us to constrain the velocity power spectrum of gas motions in the ICM indirectly. I will show that the heating rate due to dissipation of turbulence is indeed sufficient to balance the radiative cooling locally at each radius within the cores. Turbulent dissipation, therefore, might be the key element in resolving the gas cooling problem in cluster cores and other X-ray gas-rich systems.

New Frontiers of Magnetized Turbulence in the Multiphase Interstellar Medium
December 9, 2014 | LASR | 12:00 PM | Host: Angela V. Olinto
Blakesley Burkhart, University of Wisconsin - Madison

The current paradigm of the ISM is that it is a multiphase turbulent environment, with turbulence affecting many important processes. For the ISM this includes star formation, cosmic ray
acceleration, and the evolution of structure in the diffuse ISM. This makes it important to study interstellar turbulence using the strengths of numerical studies combined with observational studies. I shall discuss progress that has been made in the development of new techniques for comparing observational data with numerical MHD simulations in the star forming molecular medium, in neutral gas as traced by 21 cm emission, and warm ionized gas as traced by synchrotron polarization.