
Detailed Outline of Graduate Program Core Curriculum ASTR 30100. Stars  1. Introduction to Stars (Physical)
 Hydrostatic equilibrium. Estimates for stellar pressures and temperatures.
 Photon diffusion, scattering, and stellar luminosities.
 Stellar timescales: nuclear, KelvinHelmholtz, freefall.
 Virial theorem and its consequences.
 Theoretical HertzsprungRussell diagram. Upper and lower main sequence.
 2. Introduction to Stars (Observational)
 Determinations of stellar properties: d, L, M, R, g, T_e, abundances.
 Magnitudes and bolometric corrections; colors; spectral classification; colormagnitude diagram. Stellar populations.
 3. Hydrodynamics of SelfGravitating Fluids
 Kinetic theory of dilute gases: Boltzmann equation.
 Ideal hydrodynamics: Euler equation. Sound waves. Jeans instability and gravitational contraction.
 Viscous hydrodynamics: NavierStokes equation.
 4. Statistical Mechanics and Equations of State
 Quantum statistics: distribution functions. Ideal gases, radiation.
 Degenerate fermions: white dwarfs; Chandrasekhar limit. Neutron stars.
 Ionization equilibrium: Saha equation. Debye screening.
 5. Energy Transport in Stars
 Radiative transfer; interiors vs. atmospheres.
 Opacity: scattering and absorption processes. Rosseland mean.
 Conduction.
 Convection: Schwarzschild criterion. Mixing length theory. Turbulence and dissipation.
 6. Nuclear Reactions in Astrophysics
 Binding energy per nucleon. Isotopic abundances. H and He burning.
 Cross sections. Coulomb barrier penetration. Nonresonant and resonant reactions.
 Nuclear reaction rates: pp, CNO cycles. Advanced burning stages.
 7. Stellar Models
 Polytropes. The standard model. Convective equilibrium. Homology.
 Numerical methods: computation of ZAMS structure.
 The Sun: solar neutrino problem. Stellar pulsations: helioseismology.
 8. Advanced Topics
 Stellar Rotation.
 Magnetic Fields: MHD. Stellar dynamos.
ASTR 30300. Interstellar Matter  1. Interstellar Medium
 Cold, dense gas: 21cm and molecular observations, optical and UV absorption lines, depletion.
 Dust: physical properties of grains, grain growth and destruction in the ISM, grain rotation and alignment. Dust opacity and the extinction curve. Infrared emission from dust. Scattered light from dust. Dust polarization by scattering and by dichroic emission/absorption.
 Stromgren spheres. H II regions: ionization structure with and without dust, thermal structure.
 Twophase ISM, energy balance, thermal stability.
 Evaporation, expansion of SNR in threephase ISM.
 Cosmic rays, Fermi acceleration.
 Cosmic dynamos.
 2. Collisionless Systems
 Relaxation time.
 Vlasov equation. Continuity equation. Jeans equation. Oort limit.
 Tensor and scalar virial equation. Expansion of the universe.
 Jeans mass. Galaxy formation. Fragmentation.
 3. Distribution of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood
 Fundamental equation of stellar statistics: luminosity function, density function.
 Density perpendicular to the plane  Oort limit.
 Initial luminosity/mass function.
 4. Stellar Kinematics/Dynamics
 Solar motion
 Peculiar velocities: velocity ellipsoid, high velocity stars, statistical parallax.
 Stellar populations as summary of much of above  chemical abundances  ages of clusters.
 Galactic rotation: optical. Oort's A and B, radio rotation curves.
 Evidence for dark matter in our galaxy and others.
 Perturbations from galactic rotation.
 5. Perturbations from galactic rotation.
 Morphological classifications: Hubble, Morgan.
 Determination of Ro.
 Spiral structure: optical, radio, reasons for disagreement, density waves.
 Gas in the halo  high velocity clouds  Magellanic stream  infall.
 Chemical abundance gradients in disk and halo.
 Chemical abundances in stars and gas.
 6. Galactic Structure and Evolution: Theory
 Models such as Bahcall and Soneira.
 Dynamical models of galactic evolution.
 Chemodynamic models of galactic evolution.
ASTR 30400. Galaxies  1. The observed universe
 The cosmological distance scale
 The cosmological principle
 The expansion of the universe, Hubble's law, the deceleration parameter, the cosmological constant
 The largescale distribution of matter, clustering properties
 The age of the universe, relationship to the Hubble constant, nucleocosmochronology, stellar evolution
 Cosmic background radiations: diffuse xray background, cosmic microwave background
 Light element abundances
 The mass density of the universe
 2. The universe at high redshift
 Quasars
 Lymanalpha systems
 Early stages of galaxy evolution
 3. The microwave background radiation as a probe of the early universe
 Isotropy
 Spectrum
 Decoupling
 Reionization
 4. Relativistic homogeneous isotropic cosmologies
 A Newtonian picture of expansion.
 The FriedmannRobertsonWalker metric, the scale factor, comoving coordinates
 The Friedmann equation, the expansion rate
 Solutions to the Friedmann equation for a radiationdominated and matterdominated universe: ageredshift relations, horizons.
 5. Evolution of structure in the universe
 The power spectrum and the autocorrelation function
 The Jeans instability in an expanding universe
 Departures from the perfectfluid approximation: recombination, Silk damping, free streaming
 Growth in the nonlinear regime
 6. Primordial nucleosynthesis
ASTR 30600. Radiation Measurements in Astrophysics  1. Radiation Theory
 EM Waves and photons
 Blackbody radiation
 Atomic Interactions
 2. Light and Image Formation
 How images are formed
 Fresnel diffraction theory
 Near field, far field regions
 Fraunhoffer diffraction
 3. Signal Processing Theory
 Random fields
 Correlation functions
 Orthonomal functions
 Fourier functions
 Probability theory/Bayesian statistics/Jaynes
 Convolution and deconvolution
 4. Collecting Photons
 Basic optics
 Aberration theory
 Telescope design
 Atmospheric turbulence and adaptive optics
 5. Analyzing Light
 Design of spectrographs
 Photon detectors
 How CCDs work
 6. Photometry
 Stellar magnitudes
 Atmospheric absorption
 Background radiation
 7. Radio Astronomy
 Van Cittert equation
 Radio Interferometry
ASTR 31000. Cosmology I  1. Foundations of Cosmology
 2. RobertsonWalker Metric
 3. Dynamics of matterdominated universe
 4. Universe as a function of time and redshift
 5. Universes with finite pressure
 6. Observations and tests of Cosmology
 7. Growth of structure
 Formation of clusters and voids.
 8. Correlation functions
 9. PressSchechter Theory
 10. Radiationdominated universes
 11. Chemical equilibrium
 12. Primordial nucleosynthesis
 13. Recombination
 14. Inflation
 15. Growth of Perturbation Spectrum
 16. Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum
 17. Tests of Dark Matter
 18. Tests of Dark Energy
