YSI 1995 / Reporting Groups / Structures

Students: Martinique Faulkner, Monica Lewis, Crystal Moten


Structures

Students: Martinique Faulkner, Monica Lewis, Crystal Moten

Teacher Assistant: Philip Kelly

Teacher: Mr. Joe Rottman

Topic: The History of Tower and Bridge Construction

The most notable architectural works of the New Kingdom were the great stone temples for worship of the gods. A typical structure might include a massive gateway, a colonnaded courtyard, a hall of columns, a shrine chamber, and one or more chapels. Only the pharaohs and the high priest of Egypt could enjoy this scenery of art.

The construction of the dome, design in the late Gothic period as one eight-sided vault of pointed curvature without exterior, but structures built for additional support. Construction without the traditional armature, or skeletal framework, by placing the brick work in herringbone patterns, between a framework of stone beams

Topic: The Basics of Tower and Bridge Construction

As we know there are many types of engineers such as chemical, electrical, mechanical, and civil. An example of a chemical engineer is a worker for the Kodak company that finds better film production. Electrical engineer work with electrical wires and computers. Mechanical engineers work with heating and ventilation in astronomy. Civil engineers work with laying roads, building bridges and other structures.

Mr. Rottman is our advisor, and he is also a civil engineer. He works down in the South Pole designing CARA buildings. Mr. Rottman worked on the Maple [MAPO, actually -- ed.] building formerly called the CARA building. The CARA building is made of mostly steel and wood. The Maple building was constructed on top of an immense ice block. It uses steel beams in the forms of triangles to support it. The building is kept on top of these beams by huge steel bolts. The steel does not deteriorate because the water is frozen and it doesn't rust as much, but if you made a steel structure in the water within six months.

The nails are used to keep the building intact. They are screwed in and not hammered, because if hammered the wood would split from the severe weather. There are several different kinds of materials used in Tower and Bridges Construction such as: bricks, mortar, beams, steel, wood, and iron. Bricks are used to make a structure, while mortar is used to equally distribute pressure. The tighter the bricks are packed together the longer the bricks and the structure will last.

Materials can be either ductile or brittle. Ductile material bends before breaking. Brittle is exactly the opposite of ductile. It doesn't bend, it just breaks without any type of warning. An example of a brittle material is a marble door. The first step would be to apply pressure to exert more force. Next, the marble door will give way to the force and suddenly breaks. Some materials that are brittle are: cast iron, brick, stone, steel, and cold tootsie roll, and ductile iron pipe. Some materials that are ductile: tar, rubber, a warm tootsie roll, and a ductile iron pipe.

There are two different forces in Tower and Bridge Construction. I'll discuss about compression first, a force which tends to reduce or shorten something by pressure. The upper surface of a simple supported girder, which is a strong horizontal beam which is like steel or wood, is under compression because the weight tends to bend the middle of the girder. The underside of the arch is under compression. Tension is exactly the opposite of compression. It is a force which tends to lengthen the object. The lower surface of a simply supported beam is under tension and so is the cables and hangars of a suspension bridge.

To demonstrate tension and compression, you take a ruler and hold it at both ends. If someone is to press down on the middle of the ruler, you are demonstrating tension. You should not exert a lot of pressure on the middle where the tension occurs, the ruler will break. Tension and compression are two forces that you will hear about in the field of civil engineering.

Topic: The Link Between Astronomy and Tower Construction

Tower construction is the building of tall buildings or structures. I'm going to discuss structures in Anarctica such as the C.A.R.A. buildings. The C.A.R.A. buildings in Anarctica are used for studying astronomy.

Recently, they are constructing the C.A.R.A. buildings on stilts and screws. Since the buildings are on stilts, this allows the snow to circulate under the building. This prevents the snow from accumulating on the buildings.

The workers build the buildings with screws to hold the stilts down. When one side of the buildings began to sink the screws are used to push that side of the buildings down even with the other side. Also, the buildings have steel beams to keep the building to the ground. When the building is pushed by the winds, which have a maximum of 50 miles per hour, the steel beams keep the structure to the ground. This shows an example of compression with the steel beams.

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