CARA Education and Outreach:
Education and Outreach from the End of the Earth

Randall H. Landsberg
Director of Education & Outreach
October 1999

CARA Education and Outreach efforts :

Our projects include:
        Precollege Education
                Space Explorers
                Antarctic High School Architecture
                Mars Millennium Project
                Life on the Edge
                Educational Pole Trips
        Post-secondary Education
                Visiting Scholars
                Educators Workshops
                Chautauqua Short Course
                Advanced Technological Education (ATE)
                Undergraduate Research
                Research Studies
        Knowledge Transfer
                Communication: Lectures and Workshops
                Communication: Mass Media
                Research & International Collaborations
                Outreach Collaborations
        List of collaborators

A longer, more formal overview is also online.


Precollege Education

Space Explorers

Summary: A multi-year personal commitment to minority high school students that focuses on Science, Math, Engineering and Technology (SMET) skills and careers. Components include the hands-on laboratories, residential experiences at Yerkes Observatory, activities at Adler Planetarium, and StarLab portable planetarium presentations to aprox. 2,000 elementary students a year. The Space Explorers program is a multi-year commitment that aims to increase interest and abilities in math and science of African-American students from the inner city school system. This past year the Space Explorers Program has seen a number of changes and gone through a growth spurt due to new partnerships. However, the core structure of bi-weekly laboratories during the academic year and summer and winter residential experiences at Yerkes remains. As do the core principals of: (1) using hands-on (laboratory) activities; (2) providing multi-year involvement; (3) conducting residential experiences; and (4) assuring parental involvement (Matyas et al. 1991, Programs for Woman and Minorities, pp67-96, AAAS) and our critical partnership with the Office of Special Programs (OSP).

Activities during the past academic year were particularly technology rich. The autumn class focused on demystifying computers and included hands-on activities such as swapping boards, and installing CD-ROM drives. The second laboratory session was more closely linked to CARA research as the students, with the guidance of graduate student Dan Reichart, ventured into the invisible universe with radio astronomy. The term culminated with the students making a full sky map with a 4.5m radio telescope. The students filtered the raw data, identified sources, and then labeled sources and their location on the room sized celestial sphere they had constructed. The sphere was a particularly effective way to convey the three dimensionality of an astronomical search strategy, and it will be used by the undergraduate classes this Fall to teach the RA/Dec coordinate system.

Thirty-one Space Explorers attended the 1999 Yerkes Winter Institute which followed the traditional Yerkes Institute format of daytime labs and evening observations. In contrast, a number of changes were successfully introduced to the Yerkes Summer Institute. The changes were made for pedagogical reasons, primarily in recognition of the need to focus the content of the institute. The theme was changed from a celestial object to a common scientific phenomenon to conceptually link all the experiments. The theme for YSI'99 was waves and key concepts such as wavelength, frequency, transverse and longitudinal propagation were revisited and reinforced throughout the institute. Alignments with the local and national science standards were also highlighted for each lab. The overall number of labs was reduced, by moving from 8 to 6 daytime labs. This allowed more time to be devoted to each exploration, i.e., more depth and less breadth. In addition, the schedule was reorganized to allow groups to re-visit each lab after a meal break. This promoted greater reflection and sustained conversations. The daytime labs included: Polarization, Surf'n Waves (An Introduction to Wave Properties), Spiral Galaxies/Density Waves, Speed of Light, Water Waves, and Sonar. In the latter part of the week, the thirty students were divided into six small analysis groups that each focused on a particular lab. In these groups students examined their own data and those of their peers during extended in-depth sessions. Most importantly, the formal group reporting was reorganized to include informal peer reporting in a scenario that we referred to as jigsaw sessions.

Student representatives from each analysis group were randomly assigned to a jigsaw group where they presented their analysis group's progress. Instructors and students alike found this peer interaction to be a high point of YSI'99. In addition to making each student more accountable, it helped to foster communication and critical thinking skills. Each student shared the results of their group's analysis. Other jigsaw members listened, asked questions and made and suggestions. Each analysis group also made presentations to Space Explorer parents where in essence the students became the instructors and their parents the students.

At weekly Adler workshops, the students focused on astronomy using the Project STAR curriculum (Coyle et al. 1993, Project STAR: The Universe in Your Hands, Kendal Hunt), developed their math skills, and trained in the operation of the StarLab portable planetarium. Older students also take leadership roles and present programs in elementary schools using a StarLab inflatable planetarium. This outreach effort greatly amplifies CARA's impact. During the past academic year 20 schools were visited and 1,718 students and 40 teachers and staff were exposed to astronomy and positive minority role models through this program.

Plans for the next year include expanding the program by incorporating a Wisconsin branch of the Space Explorers, organizing a summative evaluation of the first 10 years of the program, and using educator workshops as a vehicle to translate informal science activities developed with the Space Explorers into classroom curricula. At Yerkes the Space Explorer Program will be expanded to include the activities of Professor Kyle Cudworth and his Williams Bay branch of the Space Explorers. In collaboration with the newly formed STC Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO), Hands on Universe, Adler Planetarium and Carthage College K-12 educators workshops for both in-service and pre-service teachers will be held that focus on optics and astronomy concepts. The ultimate goal of these enrichment experiences will be to develop classroom and multi-media curricula. We also plan to utilize these workshops and the Yerkes Institutes as vehicles to effectively involve CfAO researchers in outreach.

Antarctic High School Architecture

Last year CARA collaborated with Dunbar Vocational Career Academy on a project intended to intertwine research science with pre-college technical education for inner-city African American high school students. Twenty-five students enrolled in an Architectural Drafting course des igned buildings for the Antarctic environment. The exotic location helped to capture the students' attention and to encourage them to consider complex design and logistical issues associated with an extreme environment. In addition to the design work, enrichment field trips to Argonne National Laboratory and Yerkes Observatory provided the students with a better understanding of the nature of research science and the types of facilities used. CARA researchers offered the students insights into working at the Pole and feedback as their projects progressed. Dunbar is a Vocational High School in the Chicago Public School system located in the heart of Bronzeville, The Black Metropolis. The 1997 statistics list enrollment at 2,119 students of whom 68.7 % are considered low income, and 99.8 % black (source http://acct.multi1.cps.k12.il.us/). An additional partner in this project is Harold Washington City College of Chicago, where the students were given access to a CAD laboratory two days a week. A particular strength of this project is that it placed students in college and research environments where expectations are different, where they were exposed to and interacted with adults, and where they were free from negative peer pressures. We hope to expand this program to other schools in future years.

Mars Millennium Project

CARA is collaborating with Adler Planetarium on the Chicago component of the Mars Millennium Project. The Mars Millennium Project, an official White House Millennium Council Youth Initiative, challenges students across the nation to design a community for the planet Mars. This national arts, sciences and technology education initiative is guided by the U.S.\ Department of Education, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and its Jet Propulsion Lab, the National Endowment for the Arts, the J. Paul Getty Trust, and a host of other public and private organizations. Throughout the project year, teachers will engage their students in project-based learning opportunities that will result in the development of student-created Mars communities and related web pages. Selected Mars community displays will be exhibited as part of the Adler Mars Millennium Project and several student-designed Web pages will be hosted as part of the Adler Web site. CARA will participate in this project in a number of levels. The theme for the autumn Space Explorers classes will be Mars and so the students will participate in and help to develop Mars Millennium activities. In addition the core program will tap into the collective knowledge of CARA researchers for questions about remote living and research in extreme environments. Finally, artifacts from CARA research, including the extreme cold weather clothing and images of Antarctica will be used to support Adler displays.

Life on the Edge

Life on the Edge is a collaborative educational project being developed with NASA/Marshall Space Science Laboratory. This program will leverage NASA resources and promote hands-on exploration and interest in CARA science and the Antarctic. The basic premise is to study the effects of a year in Antarctica on yeast viability. The project is aimed at elementary school students who will be able to follow the yeast samples' journey to the Pole this austral summer and to look in on them throughout the year via the internet. Prior to the return of the `extremophiles' next year students can try other astro-biological experiments that are part of the project. Once the samples are returned, NASA will distribute them to partner schools throughout the U.S. The Adler Planetarium will be a local partner and host of Life on the Edge activities in conjunction with the Mars Millennium Project. See http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/msad13jan99_1.htm

Educational Pole Trips

Summary: Opportunities for educators to visit the Pole and bring the experience to a larger audience. Bringing educators to the Pole and sharing their experiences with others is a powerful way to allow thousands to vicariously experience Antarctica, the South Pole and the research conducted there. In addition to being a natural laboratory, the continent of snow and ice is a powerful tool for education and outreach efforts. Antarctica is one of a few topics, such as dinosaurs, that perpetually capture the public's imagination. This inherent lure provides a boost to outreach efforts, because it helps to surmount that first and most difficult step of gaining attention; especially when a connection can be made directly with an individual on the ice. Antarctica is not only a hook to engage students, researchers in different fields, policy makers and the general public, but a rich source of topics to study as well. Educational trips can highlight Antarctica's geography, climate, distinct view of the sky, position on the globe, history, and role in the global environment. Simply put, Antarctic travel is a tremendous mechanism for communicating with and educating people outside of one's specialized area of research.

Last austral summer an educational trip was not undertaken due to population caps at South Pole and because planned activities had not matured sufficiently. This year however, the AIP snow bike is ready to be tested, and an Antarctic Conservation Act permit has been submitted for the CARA/NASA Life on the Edge collaboration. R. Landsberg and Bill Farrell, the industrial design instructor at AIP, are scheduled to be the educational ambassadors for 1999/2000. Among their many tasks is evaluating the `Ice Prowler' with objective and subjective criteria; both the aesthetics and the performance of the bike are important. A testing protocol was also developed by engineering students as a project for their Engineering Design and Communications course at Northwestern University. Although an interesting learning experience for the students, the protocol was not quite right for the Pole.


Post-secondary Education

Visiting Scholars

This summer Chicago Public School teacher Judy Whitcomb of the Sauganash Elementary School joined CARA's education and outreach team. Judy found the academic atmosphere of the Astronomy Department offered her "tremendous opportunities for professional growth." In turn CARA and the department benefited from the work that Judy did and from her experience and perspective as a classroom educator. Among the many things Judy can count as accomplishments this summer are organizing and re-structuring the Yerkes Summer Institute and co-authoring a new lab on density waves in spiral galaxies. Judy has previously participated in CARA efforts such as southpole.com, and the entire department is looking forward to working with her again next summer.

Educators Workshops

(also see Knowledge Transfer Section) An assortment of efforts that focus on teachers (K - post-secondary), both in organized settings such as national meetings and informal settings. These efforts have reached thousands of educators over the past year.

Chautauqua Short Course

A NSF-sponsored, intensive, 3-day, short course for college teachers intended to integrate research into undergraduate curricula. CARA hosted Cosmology at the Millennium! on June 14-16, 1999. This effort successfully showcased CARA CMB research and leveraged resources of the Department, Adler Planetarium, Fermi National Laboratory, and the Chautauqua Organization. The website is still active with notes on the classes and reading lists.

Advanced Technological Education (ATE)

Summary: An initiative aimed at involving technical students in polar research through internships and classroom/laboratory based experiences. Collaborators include the Art Institute of Pittsburgh, Triton College, and Gateway Technical College. CARA recognizes the critical role that a technically advanced workforce plays in both research and the United State's role in the global economy. CARA's participation in the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program addresses that need locally and in a large context. Over 60 students have already been meaningfully involved in "Exploring Antarctic Technology through Problem Based Learning and Cognitive Mentorships," Grant No DUE-9850273. The program offers two-year associate degree students, students who are not traditionally exposed to cutting edge research, the chance to tackle real and academic problems posed by research and the Antarctic environment. The formal project goals are to promote a technologically advanced workforce, develop innovative technology curriculum, and form nontraditional linkages among artists, scientists, and technicians. There are two distinct components of this undertaking. The first involves technical students working one-on-one with researchers and professional engineers through mentorship relationships. The second consists of a classroom/studio curriculum effort in which technical students create functional solutions to problems posed by polar researchers. The diverse partners involved in this project include: Gateway Technical College in Elkhorn, Wisconsin; The Art Institute of Pittsburgh (AIP) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Triton College of River Grove, IL; Trek Bicycle Corporation; Hanebrink Bicycles; Argonne National Laboratory; and Antarctic Support Associates (ASA).

At AIP students in an advanced Industrial Design course have focused on improving the quality of life of winter-overs at the South Pole. They have developed an innovative snow bike that will be tested at the Pole this year (see http://www.iceprowler.com), specialty clothing, and safety lighting. CARA winter-overs are looking forward to using this new gear, it has attracted a great deal of media attention, and most importantly it has motivated the students to grapple with dramatic environmental and experimental concepts such as the cosmic microwave background. In fact, as an outgrowth of the "Extreme Cold Weather Design" curriculum activities, students have become involved in designing two museum displays on cosmology and the CMB, one at Adler Planetarium and another to be mounted at either the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum or NASA Goddard. Finally, Bruce Wilson of Northeastern University will adopt the Extreme Cold Weather Snow Bike curriculum for an engineering program this year.

At Triton College Frank Heitzman has used the harsh and uncommon conditions of the Antarctic plateau to stretch the imaginations of architecture and interior design students. Courses involved in the project included ARC171- Introduction to Architectural Design, ARC172 - Advanced Architectural Design, and ARC201 - Interior Design. The polar projects were: a recreation center; housing for both long term and short-term scientists and staff; a portable survival shelter for expeditions away from the base camp; and the interior of the new Dark Sector Laboratory. CARA's research was incorporated into the programs both as a motivation for the structures and as a source of requirements for the projects. The exotic location and the uncommon clients promoted significantly more research than is typical for such courses and some very original solutions. While most student projects have been academic exercises, the students drawings and models of the Dark Sector Lab, which were completed with heavy input from CARA staff, will be useful for illustrating the ideas of CARA researchers during the actual design stage.

Student internships have taken place on campus, at Yerkes Observatory, and at Argonne National Laboratory. Internships are based on 200-hour allotments that are renewable. Both the projects and the student populations have been very uncommon. Over the past year five students have participated in eleven 200-hour internships. This includes two females, one deaf student, one student confined to a wheelchair, and one student who was living in a shelter. We consider the high level of repeat internships to be an indicator of success. Mentors are encouraged to work with individual students for extended periods, but in practice will only renew if they feel that the intern's work is contributing to the project. While the formal project evaluation has not yet been completed, anecdotal evidence suggests that the internships have had very positive effects on the students as many have gone on to 4-year degrees in engineering and others have very good job prospects.

ATE interns have worked on a variety of critical projects, including assembling data acquisition boxes for DASI, automating a 24-inch telescope, improving the local seeing of the Yerkes 41-inch telescope, designing a an ultra-precise x-ray aperture-selection system for ChemMatCARS synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source, and drafting detailed CAD drawings of the TopHat telescope. These projects have been very technically challenging but have also helped to introduce the interns to scientific topics such as optics, and to hone their teamworking and communications skills.

Undergraduate Research

Summary: The involvement of undergraduates in all aspects of CARA research includes REU students and the added benefit of the STC network. By organizing the program as an STC collective we have provided a wider support network and greater oversight. This centralized approach has improved recruiting, student supervision, evaluation, student tracking, and project design.

CARA's diverse and widespread efforts offer many opportunities for undergraduates to integrate scientific research into their studies. As an STC collective, CARA is also able to offer a tremendous variety of research experiences and a connection to a large network of collaborators. Most undergraduates are currently involved under the auspices of the REU program, although some have made arrangements with individual scientists. Last year the REU program was organized as an STC collective. This centralized approach has improved recruiting, student supervision, evaluation, student tracking, and project design. A total of twenty-nine students participated in CARA research, toward which sixteen CARA REU fellowships were awarded. An additional ten undergraduate students worked with the Space Explorers.

Feedback from student and supervisor questionnaires indicate that the CARA REU program is helping to foster the next generation of research scientists. Nick Baicoianu who worked on the ACBAR project commented, "My work with CARA taught me more about a career in physics than any of my classes have. It has only made me more optimistic about a career in physics, now that I have the know-how of the processes involved and an idea of how research is done ... I most definitely feel that REU is a valuable program to undergraduates like myself. The experience I gained working in a lab was invaluable in the way it gave me a hands-on approach to physics, as opposed to reading it out of a textbook. It provided me with the opportunity to do something important for the summer, other than just debauchery and burger-flipping, and supplied a comfortable stipend as well." James Chavin of RIT noted how being part of the CARA collective helped to improve his teamworking and communication skills, "I learned a great deal about working in a dynamic group. Such as the frequency of communication needed to ensure rapid progress and that a team is capable of more and faster progress than the sum of the individuals efforts."

Jill Hanna and Prashant Malhotra, who worked with Giles Novak (NWU) exemplify the benefits of undergraduate research. Jill worked with CARA for 1.5 years and Prashant for 2.5 years. Jill is in graduate school studying Aeronautical Engineering in a cooperative program between George Washington University and NASA-Langley. Prashant has been accepted to Case Western Medical school. However, he is first taking a year off to volunteer at medical clinics in India. Prashant wrote his senior honors thesis "Magnetic Field Structure of Pre-Shocked Region in Monoceros R2," based upon his work with Giles, and Jill developed a method for remotely sensing liquid Helium level in SPARO. Both Jill and Prashant were integral in deploying SPARO to Pole last year and traveled to the Pole last austral summer.

Jonathan Mitchell and Nicholas Baicoianu, worked with John Ruhl (UCSB) on the ACBAR dewar assembly and testing. Martin Lueker, Brian Baughman, and David Woolsey also worked on ACBAR, but with Bill Holzapfel (UCB). They tackled CAD work, beam mapping programming, and the data acquisition programming. Michael O'Kelly worked with Jeff Peterson (CMU) on a comparison of sky noise at South Pole, Atacama, and Mauna Kea. Brian Perry and James Chauvin, worked with Harvey Rhody (RIT) on the assembly and analysis of images from SPIREX/Abu. Henry H. Hsieh worked with Tony Stark and Adair Lane (CFA/SAO) Henry will be a Harvard University senior this fall, and AST/RO research will form the basis of his senior thesis.

At the University of Chicago under the direction of John Carlstrom, Mike Hasak and Will Trimble have begun a very ambitious project to make the University's 4.5-m radio telescope remotely controllable. Will has made all of the necessary hardware modifications and wrote most of the lower-level computer commands, and some of the middle-level computer commands to convert the telescope from manual to remote control. Mike has written and tested code to track the sun, the moon, and Jupiter, all to an accuracy of a few hundredths of a degree. Now that the telescope is remotely controllable, he is preparing to write a web interface. The radio telescope will continue to be a tool for learning both for student research and, now that it is more automated, for undergraduate classes. The ultimate goal is to make it controllable through the internet, and accessible to other universities and high schools.

Our plans for undergraduate programs include improving the centralized organization of the REU program and creating a forum for the students to interact more and comment on each others projects. Because the number of requests and projects were much greater than the number of fellowships CARA was able to offer this year, we would like to increase the number of REU fellowships to seventeen. We have budgeted a small amount of funds for travel so that we can attract students from diverse geographic regions. We also plan to involve undergraduates in CARA research through science journalism. Specifically we are recruiting students to profile CARA telescopes and research projects at a level the general public can understand.

Research Studies

A robust program of traditional research based collaborations for Ph.D. candidates, postdoctoral researchers, and visiting scholars (discussed in the research web pages).


Knowledge Transfer

As CARA has grown into a mature Center both our connections to and communications with the world beyond have increased. This year in particular has seen a rise in the number of collaborators in both research and outreach efforts. A number of factors, including guest observer programs and community interest in expanding research at the Pole and CARA outreach activities, have contributed to this growth. CARA recognizes the importance of involving the larger astronomy community in our current research and discussions of future astronomy at the South Pole. In addition to communicating through normal research channels, CARA continues to work hard to better inform the astronomical community of the uniqueness of the South Pole site and to nurture interest in future research. CARA also recognizes the importance of communicating with communities beyond academia. Again this year there has been a particular emphasis on science educators, primarily through workshops and lectures. We have also seen in explosion in mass media coverage. Both communication and collaborations increase awareness of CARA science, the US Antarctic Program, and Antarctica in general. The Knowledge Transfer section has been roughly divided into issues of communication and of collaboration, within these sections both outreach and research components are discussed.

Communication: Lectures and Workshops

In addition to communicating with the research community, CARA is actively working to inform and involve the general public, students, and educators. We especially target science educators due to the muliplicative factor of working with teachers. Each educator that we work with in turn works with many students in the classroom for many years. Perhaps the best venue for reaching science educators is at National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Meetings, as teachers who attend NSTA are often leaders in their schools and so the amplification factor is even greater. Also notable is the increased involvement of CARA scientists in outreach communication. This year Tom Bania was invited to give a keynote Shell Science Seminar at NSTA in Boston, and John Ruhl is the author of one of three CARA proposals submitted for NSTA 2000 in Orlando. His abstract reads, Weighing the Universe from an Antarctic Circumnavigating Balloon - Hear of the trials and success of a science team that flew a high altitude balloon-borne telescope around Antarctica to view the early universe.

The internationally reknowned author Janice VanCleave continues to be a powerful spokesperson for CARA and the South Pole. Over the past year, she personally has worked with thousands of students and educators in addition to those she reaches through publications. Listed below is a small sample of the presentations she has made in connection to CARA.

CARA researchers present scientific findings through traditional academic channels. Over fifty scientific talks have been presented in the past year at a variety of settings including the AAS, National Laboratory Colloquia, and the National Academy of Sciences. Lectures, particularly with the polar clothing as a prop, continue to be an effective way to involve communities outside of academic research in CARA's science and Antarctica. Members of CARA have delivered lectures to thousands of students, educators, and members of the general public. The dual hooks of Antarctica and astronomy ensure that CARA lectures are always in high demand. One of the unexpected benefits of popularizing Antarctic research is that it helps to destroy negative stereotypes of scientists. Listed below are some examples of the public lectures that members of CARA have delivered: Lectures have also proven to be a path to make additional connections with industry. Graduate Student Nils Halverson was invited to present "Glimpsing Ancient Light" at the technical seminar series at T&M Antennas. The purpose of the series is to expose the engineers to scientific concepts not directly related to their work. The hope is that this sort of exploration will spark new ideas. About 20 engineers attended and it has subsequently lead to a campus visit to see the DASI telescope. Although this talk has not inspired any commercial activity it illustrates the broader network that the CARA offers its graduate students and how CARA science can help seed new ideas.

Recently, through a collaboration with the Chautauqua Organization CARA has begun to reached out to more college educators. This spring, June 14-16, 1999, CARA organized a Chautauqua short course titled {\it Cosmology at the Millennium!} that was hosted at the University of Chicago. A Chautauqua course is intended to communicate the latest advances in research to undergraduate college teachers of science so that they in turn can translate it to the classroom. This three-day intensive short course explored both theoretical and experimental aspects of modern cosmology including laboratory exercises. This is a historic time for cosmology, particularly for CARA due to our focus on CMB observations with Python, Viper, ACBAR, and DASI. Course leaders included J. Carlstrom, R. Landsberg, and S. Meyer of CARA, and M. Turner, E. Gates, S. Burles, S. Dodelson, and R. Kron of U. Chicago and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). See the Chautauqua forum homepage for more general information, http://www.engrng.pitt.edu/~chautauq/page2.html#ov The course was tremendously well received, and very effectively leveraged the resources of the Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Fermi National Laboratory. By directly exposing undergraduate educators to CARA research this forum helps to ensure that cutting edge science will be translated directly into the classroom. There were 27 participants, with 41 applicants even though the course was marked closed on the Web. For more information, see our website for the course.

In the coming years we plan to continue to offer workshops for science educators. Recently, in collaboration with the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) a Chautauqua short course on adaptive optics was proposed. As well numerous workshops on image analysis, optics, and telescopes will be hosted at Yerkes Observatory for both pre-service and in-service K-12 educators over the next year. These workshops will involve many partner institutions including Carthage College, Adler Planetarium and Hand On Universe (HOU).

Communication: Mass Media

The past year has resulted in an exceptional amount of media attention for CARA science, outreach, and the Pole in general. A fraction of this attention was a consequence of public concern for the well being of the site doctor due to her medical condition, but the vast majority revolved around interest in CARA projects. CARA has also made a deliberate effort to raise public awareness by working with the media and public affairs offices at our host institutions. The amount of media attention that CARA research and outreach activities have attracted this year from prestigious members of the press including the New York Times and Nova, indicate that our projects are newsworthy and that our efforts have been successful. Two separate Nova episodes will feature the DASI telescope. Lucas Productions' "Mapping the Universe" episode has already filmed DASI on campus in HDTV. The WBGH "Millennium Project" episode will focus on DASI at the South Pole as the year 2000 arrives. The other media darling this year has been the snow bike developed by students at the Art Institute of Pittsburgh. Among the dozens of media events involving the `Ice Prowler' were a feature article in the New York Times Science Times Section (Leary, Warren E., "Bicycle Built for Brutal South Pole," New York Times, Science Times, p. D5, 16 February 1999), and a segment on the Discover Channel Canada.

CARA is actively involved in numerous efforts that utilize a host of media with the goal of increasing public awareness and interest in our science and Antarctica in general. CARA is currently collaborating with Adler Planetarium and Smithsonian/NASA Goddard on a number of museum exhibits including two cosmology exhibits. Collaborating with museums is mutually beneficial as CARA can provide content, artifacts, and advice; and the museums can offer exposure to millions of visitors. CARA continues to use the web as an effective tool to communicate with the research community and with our more public audiences. The CARA website has become a vital and current source of information filled with job postings, curricula, and news of the latest CARA activities. In addition the interactive educational web site, southpole.com, which was developed to support the 1997/1998 educational Pole trip has been morphed into a more permanent student activity web page and moved to the CARA pages. Finally our collaborators at UNSW have produced a video documentary "The Deep Black", which follows AASTO research exploits during one summer of work at the South Pole in two half-hour programs for use in high schools.

Research & International Collaborations

Partnerships and collaborations have always played a key role in CARA's success. The spirit of cooperation is vital to both the outreach and the research arms of the STC. Below we highlight a number of collaborations.

All of CARA's current research thrusts are multi-institutional efforts, and many involve international collaborators. Individual collaborators and collaborating institutions are discussed in the context of their research programs. We do note that CARA has often played a role in technology development with industrial partners. The AST/RO Lucent Technologies collaboration is typical.

The AST/RO project continues to collaborate with Dr. Greg Wright, a member of Technical Staff at Lucent Technologies, on high frequency heterodyne receivers and quasioptics. Wright travels to the Pole for several weeks each year to work on the AST/RO detector systems, regularly attends AST/RO organizational meetings in Boston, and has developed equipment for use on AST/RO at his laboratory in Holmdel, New Jersey. Wright's salary and the costs of Dr. Wright's laboratory equipment are borne by Lucent; Lucent receives no funds from CARA. The collaboration has resulted in improved detector systems for AST/RO.

The University of Cologne, Germany, is an integral part of the AST/RO consortium. The AST/RO acousto-optical spectrometers (AOS) are constructed and maintained by U. Cologne personnel. At least one Cologne staff member or student travels to Pole each year. This collaboration is supported in part by a NATO grant. In April 1999, a new 4-channel AOS array spectrometer for AST/RO having 4.8 GHz total intermediate frequency bandwidth was successfully tested at the CSO and delivered to SAO for integration with the Steward Observatory 4-channel 810 GHz array receiver.

Northwestern Physics and Astronomy graduate student David Chuss is working together with Harvey Moseley of NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center and Giles Novak of Northwestern University in designing upgrades to the SPARO instrument. This work is supported by a NASA GSRP Fellowship to Chuss.

Jeff Peterson continues to collaborate with David Osterman of Hypres Corp. on the development of single mode microlithographed bolometers. This year a co-planar low pass filter was designed and fabricated. Ken Ganga and Hien Ngyuen of JPL collaborate on Viper as does Don Alvarez (Disney Corp.) Peter Ade of QMC London will be an author on the tipper results paper.

James Bock at JPL is a member of the ACBAR collaboration, and is providing the bolometric detectors. These detectors and the ACBAR feed optics are similar to those baselined for the Planck-HFI; their implementation in ACBAR will give valuable feedback to that effort. The design and fabrication of the ACBAR 250 mK refrigerator is the product of the collaboration of several groups with Chase Instruments in England. This novel refrigerator uses a charcoal pumped He-4 stage to condense He-3 in two separate systems, one of which serves as a 500 mK thermal guard for the other, which will remain at 250 mK for 24 hours. The entire system operates from an unpumped He-4 bath, eliminating the need for a mechanical pump at the telescope.

The ACBAR collaboration includes Peter Ade at Queen Mary College in London, who is supplying the required band-defining metal-mesh filters and will be doing the same for the Planck-HFI, a mission of the European Space Agency. The similarity of the filtering and feed optics in ACBAR and Planck make the former a valuable testbed for the latter.

Outreach Collaborations

Collaboration is vital to CARA's education and outreach efforts. A large network of partners who are actively part of CARA's programs have been cultivated over the past ten years. In the past year this extensive network has grown even more. Collaborators are listed below with new and notable ones highlighted.

The University of Chicago's Office of Special Programs (OSP) remains the key partner for the Space Explorer's Program. Dr. Larry Hawkins has been involved in outreach on Chicago's Southside for over thirty years. The roots of OSP in the local community are invaluable for recruiting students and involving their parents in our programs.

The Adler Planetarium is currently in the midst of a tremendous expansion of its physical resources and educational programs. As Adler has grown so have our collaborations. CARA worked with the Adler Planetarium on a number of projects this past year including the Chautauqua course, the Space Explorers, and the Mars Millennium Project. CARA also provided both expertise and artifacts for the ``From the Night Sky to the Big Bang" exhibit, and members of CARA are on Adler's Advisory Council. In future years we expect this partnership to strengthen and grow.

CARA and the Space Explorers have begun a collaboration with the newly formed Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Science and Technology Center headquarted at University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC). This partnership will jump-start the CfAO education and outreach programs and help ensure that the best practices of Space Explorers Program are translated to other partners. CARA brings to the collaboration a successful track record and a vast network of partners, while the CfAO can provide new researchers, exciting science; and as CARA ramps down stable long-term funding for successful multi-year programs such as the Space Explorers. While the CfAO will not begin until this November, the collaboration started in a number of ways. This spring a group of Space Explorers visited colleges on the West Coast at collaborating institutions of the CfAO. This whirlwind pre-admissions tour included UC Berkeley, UC Santa Cruz, UCLA, and Caltech. In addition, other partners that the new Center has attracted have already been actively involved in Space Explorer activities. Vivian Hoette Adler/HOU was an instructor for the YSI'99 where the HOU software was used for a lab on spiral galaxies. In fact this collaboration has already resulted in a new Spiral Galaxies/Density Waves Lab developed by CPS public school teacher Judy Whitcomb, Richard Kron, and Vivian Hoette (see http://astro.uchicago.edu/cara/outreach/se/ysi/1999/spiralgalaxies.html)


List of collaborators


A longer, more formal overview is also online.